Cannula - a sharp needle connected to a flexible tube which can be used to put fluids into a vein.
Cervix - the neck of the uterus which dilates during labour to allow the baby to pass into the birth canal.
Controlled cord traction - the method used to deliver the placenta by gently pulling on the umbilical cord while holding the uterus stable with the other hand on the abdomen.
Episiotomy - a cut made in the perineum to help the baby be born quickly.
Membranes - the bag of waters that the baby grows in during pregnancy. These contain the amniotic fluid and are attached to the placenta. They are delivered with the placenta after the baby is born.
Perineum - this is the area between the vagina (the opening to the birth canal) and the anus. It sometimes tears as the baby is born, or a cut might be made in it (episiotomy) to help the baby be born quickly.
Placenta - also called the afterbirth. This is the organ which connects the mother and baby in pregnancy, providing the baby with food and oxygen through the close connection between the two separate blood supplies.
Placenta accreta - where the placenta grows into the wall of the uterus so that is does not easily detach after the baby is born.
Placenta praevia - a low-lying placenta, which is very near to, or covers, the opening to the uterus.
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) - the excessive loss of blood from the mother after the birth of a baby.
Third stage of labour - the time beginning from the birth of the baby to when the placenta has been delivered.
Uterotonics - drugs which contract the uterus so that the placenta can be delivered. These can be used either to prevent a postpartum haemorrhage or to treat one that is happening.
Uterus - also known as the womb, the muscular organ in which the baby is carried during pregnancy.
VBAC - vaginal birth after caesarean.